As days get shorter, insects get busy

Ever since June 21 this summer, the days have been getting
gradually shorter. In less than a week, on Tuesday, Sept. 21 the autumnal
equinox will occur and the days will be shorter than the nights.

This forthcoming change is known not only to the human
residents of Franklin and Gulf counties. While not exactly intellectual giants,
the insect population is preparing for the inevitable.

More than 2,500 years ago the Greek raconteur Aesop told the
story of the ant and the grasshopper. The ant was industrious and prepared for
the coming winter, but the grasshopper was profligate and did not get ready for
the impending period of privation.

It did not end well for this profligate insect pest. The
moral of the story was to be prepared and have reserves ready when the days
grew short. The bugs in north Florida clearly got the message.

Social insect, such as European honeybees, are working hard
collecting nectar and pollen from the early autumn wildflowers. Goldenrods,
partridge peas and many others are humming with activity as the bees build up
their stores.

Honeybees also have another tactic for surviving the
adversity of winter. The worker bees, which are all female, eject the drones,
which are male, from the hive.

The drones scatter and are left to their fate. They cannot
forage and feed themselves, so they starve or fall victim to hungry birds or
animals seeking a tasty morsel.

Many butterflies and moths drink the nectar of late blooming
plants during summer’s shortening days. This allows them, by default, to
improve the pollination rate and genetic diversity of plant populations.

Zebra longwings feast on the pollen of late bloomers as a
method of producing a bad taste to repulse predators. Other butterflies, like
the buckeye, remain in panhandle Florida and have enough surviving members to
replenish the populating in the spring.

Some, like the monarchs, are preparing for the arduous
migrations to sunny south-of-the-border locations. Caterpillars load up on
local milkweed species which provides a flavor deterrent to neophyte bird which
attempt to dine on the colorful insects.

Humming birds currently are darting from bloom to bloom,
drinking the nectar to support their quick-paced lives with this high carbohydrate
solution. Like the migratory butterflies, they will soon depart on a southerly

The tiny hyperactive birds – which have a typical wing beat
of 50 per second and a heart rate of 1,250 beats per minute – need the
calories. Their supersonic metabolism demands the stratospheric energy levels
provided by local autumn wildflowers so these tiny avian visitors can
successfully complete their 500-mile trip across the Gulf of Mexico.

Even the lazy and long-maligned fabled grasshopper’s cousin,
the katydid, is enjoying the remaining warm days by snacking on available
blooms. This member of the Tettigoniidae family is an indiscriminate eater much
like the grasshopper, but late-season flowers are definitely on the menu.

Katydids are most easily distinguished from grasshoppers by
their long antennae which extend beyond the length of the insect’s body. Unlike
Aesop’s grasshopper, they and all the other insects are not wasting a minute

While it is hot now, winter’s chills are certain and not far
in the future.

To learn more about how the bugs
prepare for winter Franklin and Gulf counties, contact the nearest UF/IFAS
County Extension Office or visit
To read more stories by Les Harrison visit and follow me on

Meet the Editor

David Adlerstein, The Apalachicola Times’ digital editor, started with the news outlet in January 2002 as a reporter.

Prior to then, David Adlerstein began as a newspaperman with a small Boston weekly, after graduating magna cum laude from Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts. He later edited the weekly Bellville Times, and as business reporter for the daily Marion Star, both not far from his hometown of Columbus, Ohio.

In 1995, he moved to South Florida, and worked as a business reporter and editor of Medical Business newspaper. In Jan. 2002, he began with the Apalachicola Times, first as reporter and later as editor, and in Oct. 2020, also began editing the Port St. Joe Star.

Wendy Weitzel The Star Digital Editor

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